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Tanja Nijmeijer

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Alexandra Nariño (Tanja Nijmeijer) is an international combatant from The Netherlands and member of the Peace Delegation of the FARC-EP

Havana, Cuba, site of the peace talks, February 25, 2014

Anti-drug policy for sovereignty and good living conditions for the rural poor

The consumption of psychoactive drugs as a public health problem and decriminalization of consumers.

In development of the general guidelines of the "Anti-drug policy for the sovereignty and good living conditions for the rural poor", the FARC-EP present eight minimum proposals for the seventh item: "The consumption of psychoactive drugs as a public health problem and decriminalization of consumers":

1.    Recognition of the consumption of psychoactive drugs as a public health    problem
2.    Democratic and participatory design and implementation of policies against the consumption of psychoactive drugs
3.    Centrality of state responsibility regarding the consumption of psychoactive drugs
4.    Prevention of the consumption of psychoactive drugs
5.    Therapeutic, rehabilitative treatment for and harm reduction of the consumption of psychoactive drugs
6.    State funding of policies against the use of psychoactive drugs
7.    Structural reforms to social security in health
8.    State regulation and de-penalization of the use of psychoactive drugs

7.1. Recognition of the use of psychoactive drugs as a public health problem

The consumption of psychoactive drugs will be recognized as a public health problem, explained essentially by structural causes of the economic, political, social and cultural logic of capitalism. By poverty, unemployment, discrimination and social exclusion and by the absence of perspectives for life, especially for young people. Scientific and academic research will be encouraged to develop an assessment on the current status and tendencies of consumption and promote specialized knowledge of the problem to allow its comprehensive approach through public policy. For this purpose, an interdisciplinary Mission of experts will be established, which should produce a "Report on the status and tendencies regarding the use of psychoactive drugs".

7.2. Democratic and participatory design and implementation of policies against the consumption of psychoactive drugs

A "National Policy Council against the use of psychoactive drugs" with representatives of state institutions, scientific institutions and specialized centers, therapeutic communities and consumer organizations will be formed. Its main function is to provide democratic and participatory design of public policy in this area, with a public health and human rights approach as well as the results of the "Report on the status and tendencies regarding the use of psychoactive drugs." Public policy will favor prevention, therapeutic treatment, rehabilitation, harm reduction and regulation of consumption. It will consider specific issues and needs according to age, gender, socioeconomic status and geographic location.

7.3. Centrality of state responsibility regarding the consumption of psychoactive drugs

Notwithstanding the democratic and participatory nature of the policies against the use of psychoactive drugs, the centrality of state responsibility to address the problem will be recognized. This involves the commitment of using resources for social investment and undertaking measures to overcome the structural causes of consumption. It also involves the adaptation of the social security system so that it can meet the requirements resulting from the recognition of the problem of consumption as a public health issue. It also includes punitive measures against big networks that commercialize psychoactive substances, as well as their main beneficiaries. A differential treatment, including rehabilitation and economic alternatives for those who are involved in the so-called micro-trafficking, should be offered.

7.4. Prevention of the consumption of psychoactive drugs

The policy of preventing consumption of psychoactive drugs will focus on children and young people, without neglecting other population groups. Special prevention programs will be developed and implemented in educational institutions at different levels, involving the whole of the educational communities. Such programs will be extended to the urban centers and rural areas, with active participation of the organized communities and the definition of areas to prioritize if necessary. Prevention will be based on educational and informational campaigns to prevent consumption and mitigate the risks for the existing users, and to promote healthy lifestyles. In this aspect, free provision and guarantees of permanent state offers regarding cultural, sporting and recreational alternatives, occupy a central place, as well as the provision of employment options and alternatives.   

7.5. Therapeutic, rehabilitative treatment and harm reduction of the consumption of psychoactive drugs

 The consumer of psychoactive drugs will be recognized as a subject with rights. The state has a responsibility with them, given their addiction. Free access to therapeutic treatment, rehabilitation and harm reduction will be guaranteed to the consumers. In furtherance of this purpose, the corresponding resources will be made available in order to significantly increase the state's provision and support the existing centers. Similarly, information regarding acces to treatment and rehabilitation within the health system will be widely disseminated. Monitoring and control over rehabilitation centers will be improved in order to ensure the quality of therapeutic treatments. Such centers will undergo permanent specialized assessments. Free outpatient care centers for drug addicts will be created.For chronic users and those who decide to keep on consuming, there will be programs focused on risk and harm reduction, including detoxification and recovery of self-esteem.

7.6. State funding of policies against the use of psychoactive drugs

Public policy of research, prevention, therapeutic treatment, rehabilitation and harm reduction, as well as the regulation of the consumption of psychoactive drugs, will be funded by the state, without undermining the contributions from different sectors of society. The funding will guarantee the sustainability of public policy in the medium and long term. To this end, a special Fund will be established, with resources from the national budget and seizures of The National Department of Anti-narcotics.

7.7. Structural reforms to social security in health

The real guarantee for the treatment of consumption of psychoactive drugs as a public health problem that emphasizes prevention and enables therapeutic treatment, rehabilitation and harm reduction, from the perspective of human rights, is a structural and deep reform of the social security system. This should involve an appropriate institutional redesign, which effectively embodies the right to health and well-being of the population, based on the principles of universality, gratuity, equity and de-commodification. A necessary condition for such reform is the immediate dismantling of financial intermediation and privatization, as well as strengthening the state public health system and, in particular, the public hospital and ambulatory care network.

7.8. State regulation and de-penalization of the use of psychoactive drugs

Public policy will be based on the overcoming prohibition and decriminalization of consumption. This implies giving priority to measures and actions aimed at the gradual and differentiated regulation of consumption, including legalization, attending their impacts and uses. To this end, relevant specialist studies will be undertaken, considering the type of drug and international experiences, and the rights of consumers. These will be treated as victims of the criminal transnational enterprise of drug trafficking; stigmatization and persecution will be outlawed, and de-penalization of consumption will be ensured, which involves the implementation of reforms in criminal law.

Peace Delegation of the FARC-EP

Published in FARC-EP
Thursday, 13 February 2014 00:00

Joint Communique #32

JOINT COMMUNIQUE 32

Havana, February 13, 2014

The delegations of the Government and the FARC-EP report that:

We have worked steadily throughout this round of talks and have begun to construct agreements on the item "Solution to the problem of illicit drugs", specifically on the first sub-point, "Programs for crop substitution. Comprehensive development plans with community participation in the design, implementation and evaluation of substitution programs and environmental recovery of the areas affected by these crops".

Published in Joint Communiqués

Peterson: We are here with Laura Villa, a member of the peace delegation of the FARC for the ongoing negotiations in Havana between the organization and the Colombian government. They are looking for a solution to what has been a 50-year internal conflict in Colombian between the FARC and the government. The FARC is the Spanish acronym for the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia. It is the oldest active armed guerrilla group in Latin America. Laura is a guerilla fighter and also a member of the peace delegation. Thank you for being with us Laura to talk to discuss Colombia?s drug policies. To begin, talk about Colombia?s current drug policy.

Villa: First of all, I would like to say hello and send my greetings to all the people of the world. A fraternal, Latin American, and Bolivarian greeting on behalf of the Peace Delegation and all the guerrillas who make up the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia. You already said it, that we are here in Havana putting forth our best effort to advance with the peace process in Colombia. We are currently on the third, or really the fourth point of debate on the agenda that is called ?Solution to the problem of illicit drugs, but it is the third point we are debating here at the negotiation table.

You ask me what is involved in the current anti-drug policy. I would begin by saying that if we do a survey at a global level of conferences and symposiums regarding anti-drug policies, one arrives to the conclusion that the global anti-drug policy has failed.

The main causes of the failure of the anti-drug policy is, first of all, that consumption has not decreased, nor has production. Colombia currently produces 95% of cocaine consumed in the United States. Secondly, consumers are treated in a punitive and criminal manner. This is an urgent public health issue and should be addressed accordingly. Thirdly, the Colombian farmers who grow the coca leaf are also treated with repressive and punitive policies. There are situations like in the Macarena region, where the national army has committed some of the worst human rights violations. That has appeared in several news outlets and trials in Colombia. The fourth is a policy of prohibition, which is a hypocritical policy. Prohibition increases profits for those involved in the drug trade, increases the costs of operation, but, there is a persecution against the consumers.

Peterson: I want to stress that the coca leaf was used in Colombia well before the Spanish arrived to the Americas. Can you explain what the FARC?s policy is on the issue of legalizing illicit crops. Because there is a big difference between the coca leaf and cocaine.

Villa: Your question is very important. In many news outlets, there is a fairly negative propaganda about the coca leaf. They use slogans like ?Coca kills,? or ?We want a country free of coca.? But really the FARC embraces the demands of the farmers and the majority, we say ?Colombia wants a country, it wants a nation free of cocaine.? The coca leaf doesn?t kill people. We want to promote knowledge and respect for the properties of the coca leaf that are medicinal, therapeutic, artisanal, industrial, and that preserve a historical and cultural legacy in certain communities. That it can continue to be produced in a manner that is regulated and controlled and with active participation by the state, but without the detriment of criminalizing and pursuing our farmers.

Peterson: What is involved in the FARC?s proposal for the third issue on the negotiation table, involving illicit crops.

Villa: We want to emphasize that the changes must begin with changing the goals and objectives of the anti-drug policy. Our proposal is called ?An anti-drug policy for the sovereignty and well-being of the poor farmers.? What does it involve? The issue of drug trafficking is totally connected with the issue of land, so comprehensive agrarian reform is necessary, where the farmer has land and infrastructure for production. The solution also calls for respect and recognition for the coca leaf as a plant with medicinal, therapeutic, artisanal and industrial properties. It also calls to address the topic of drug consumers as a public health issue, using prevention and education. It also requires stopping the fumigation of the coca crops, and compensate the victims of the fumigations. Not only those in towns, but also those in rural zones. The demilitarization of territory where there are illicit crops is also necessary. The problem is not fixed with repression or criminalization. The presence of the State is needed, but in bringing infrastructure for social development. And finally, the participation of other countries is also necessary.

Peterson: Who are the financial beneficiaries of the drug trade in Colombia?

Villa: We define drug trafficking as a transnational business, which is tied to a Capitalistic model. It has four phases: production, circulation, commercialization and distribution. Within these phases, there are weak links and strong links. The strong links are the ones that retain most of the profit. Who receives the profit? The money launderers and the owners of the main highways. Those who commercialize the drugs. They are companies dedicated to money laundering and mafia work, but they are not the focus of the persecution and prohibition policies. Who are the weak links? They are the ones who do not reap the benefits from this business. They are mainly the farmers and the consumers.

Peterson: Before we continue to discuss who has impacted by this anti-drug policy, talk a bit about the economic institutions that move the money in the drug trade and if they have faced any sort of punishment.

Villa: As I said, they are mafia-life organizations. No one knows who they are. However, big banks and large financial entities are full of that kind of money. The drug trafficking industry moves around 500 billion dollars a year, and the industry makes up about 3% of Colombia?s economy.

Peterson: Why are the farmers growing the coca leaf rather than other crops?

Villa: First of all, the coca leaf has certain characteristics for its cultivation. It can be cultivated several times each year. The byproduct of the coca leaf is very small. When you look at the structure of rural zones in Colombia, there are no highways so the farmer can transport banana or yuca crops. There are no roads, so transportation is very expensive. The other thing is that farmers can find buyers for the entire harvest, unlike food crops, where you have to go compete in conditions where, for example the free trade agreement leaves farmers in total disadvantage. So cocaine, which is the final product of the coca leaf, generates certain ease for farmers given their situation of poverty and misery. Since they don?t have a lot of land, it are nearly obligated to produce this plant to generate any profit.

Peterson: Since the coca leaf is an illegal crop in Colombia, what do farms do when their production is stopped? Do they have to leave rural areas for the cities? What other options are there?

Villa: That?s where the issue of displacement comes into play, and thus the increasing the statistic of the impoverished in Colombia.

Peterson: Even if the coca leaf is legalized, what will stop the buyers from purchasing the harvests to use for cocaine production and export? What will stop people from producing cocaine?

Villa: The first is to solve the farmers? problems. That they don?t have to grow the coca leaf to live better. That they can substitute that crop for another, but with dignified conditions. The second is to pursue those who are truly responsible for the drug trade and who see most of the profits, which are the money launderers and the owners of the highways. Where are they? Many people know who they are, but it seems that the will doesn?t exist to go after them, to go after the mafia. So we have to create policies that truly process and penalize, without impunity for the beneficiaries of this trade. And the third part is education and prevention for our young people, for consumers, for everyone who suffers from addiction. This must happen. The primary consumption is for marijuana, the second is amphetamines, the third in cocaine and opium. So even if people stop growing crops to produce cocaine and marijuana, there is still the amphetamines and opium. So this is a complex problem that can?t be resolved by simply prohibiting the cultivation of the coca leaf.

Peterson: Thank you Laura for joining us to explain the FARC?s proposal for a comprehensive drug policy in Colombia, and how the country could exist with the coca leaf but without cocaine.

Villa: Ok, take care.

Peterson: That was Laura Villa. She is a delegate of the FARC who is present in Cuba for the ongoing peace talks with the Colombian government.
Read more: http://voiceofrussia.com/us/2014_02_11/FARC-guerrilla-proposes-new-drug-policy-in-Colombia-8155/

Published in Background

"Glyphosate: powerful chemical weapon of transnational power"

"A crime against humanity"

It's no casualty that Agent Orange and Glyphosate have been used in two wars led by the United States, and both are produced by the multinational Monsanto. Agent Orange was used during the Vietnam War as a weapon of war and glyphosate is used in Colombia for the same purpose.

Published in Background

Havana, Cuba, site of the peace talks, February 5, 2014

Anti-drug policy for sovereignty and good living conditions for the rural poor

Immediate suspension of aerial spraying glyphosate and integral reparation to victims

In development of the general guidelines of the "Anti-drug policy for sovereignty and good living conditions for the rural poor", the FARC-EP present four minimum proposals, related to the fifth item: "Immediate suspension of aerial spraying with glyphosate and comprehensive compensation to victims":

Published in FARC-EP

Havana, Cuba, site of the peace talks, January 23, 2014

Anti-drug policy for sovereignty and good living conditions for the rural poor

3. Recognition and encouragement of dietary, nutritional, medicinal, therapeutic, artisanal, industrial and cultural uses of the coca, poppy and marijuana crops.

Published in FARC-EP

Havana, Cuba, site of the Peace Talks, January 14, 2014

National Program for the substitution of the illicit use of coca, poppy or marijuana crops (complete version)

In order to contribute to the solution of the economic and social problems of the peasants in rural communities, who have been forced to grow coca, poppy or marijuana. In order to advance in the creation of material and non-material conditions for good living conditions for peasant families and communities, the FARC-EP present the following basic guidelines for a "National Program for the substitution of the illicit use of coca, poppy or marijuana crops". The spirit and essential content of this program are based on the pilot project for Cartagena del Chair?, proposed by Comandante Manuel Marulanda V?lez in San Vicente, on June 16, 2000. The proposal has been updated and redesigned, taking into account the changing characteristics of this matter during the last decades, the tendencies in political and academic debate, and the new definitions that are used on an international level regarding policies in this field. We have also considered the partial agreements on points 1 and 2 of the General Agreement of Havana.

General Purpose of the Program

Create material and non-material conditions in order to obtain better living conditions for peasant families and communities, which currently derive their precarious subsistence from the coca, poppy and marijuana crops. The conditions have to be created in a context of structural changes in rural society, which are characteristic of the socio-environmental, democratic and participatory agrarian and rural reform, demanded by the country and the dispossessed in the countryside.

Program Objectives

The program seeks the following objectives:

2.1. Contribute to structural transformations of rural society, characteristic of the process of comprehensive, socio-environmental, democratic and participatory rural and agricultural reforms, demanded by the country and the dispossessed in the countryside.

2.2. Overcome the conditions of poverty and misery of peasant communities and families, who have been forced by their economic situation to produce coca, poppy and marijuana. Likewise, all workers linked to the production process: collectors and other types of salaried employment in that sector.

2.3. Strengthen peasant communities, recognizing their ability to self-government and autonomous management of the territory.

2.4. Promote voluntary substitution for the illicit uses of coca crops, poppy and marijuana, by promoting alternative development plans, in discussion with and with the direct participation of the communities involved.

2.5. Regulate the production and marketing of coca, poppy and marijuana through direct state intervention. The regulation should be based on the recognition of the nutritional, medicinal, therapeutic and cultural qualities, to be defined in each case, as well as their artisanal and industrial possibilities.

2.6. Contribute to food sovereignty and security of the Nation.

Conditions for implementing the Program

To implement the Program we need to guarantee basic political, economic, social and political conditions, as well as basic conditions for criminal policy and public order policy:

3.1. Definition of the National Program as a special chapter of the process of comprehensive rural and agrarian reforms, and socio-environmental, democratic and participatory reforms

The "National Program for replacing illicit uses of coca leaf crops, poppy or marijuana" shall be defined as a special chapter in the process of comprehensive, socio-environmental, democratic and participatory rural and agricultural reforms.In that sense, the program should respect the right to land and territory, which shall be guaranteed to peasants and rural communities. All policies and instruments required to make it effective in real and material terms, according the proposals made by the FARC-EP, and consistent with the partial agreements reached with the national government at the peace talks will be guaranteed as well. Of particular importance is the effective recognition of the Peasant Reserve Zones. The Program must also be incorporated into the National Development Plan of the next government.

3.2. Agreed definition of the territories that will be covered by the program

Using the technical tools of geographic referencing and social mapping, the specific territories and areas of the Program will be defined. The FARC-EP and the involved communities will have a direct participation in this process. If necessary and in accordance with the more precise definitions of the Program, there may be established prioritized territories or regions.

3.3. Mining or hydrocarbon exploitation shall not affect territories and areas covered by the program.

The territories and zones of the Program are conceived within a framework of alternative development for food sovereignty and security of the nation. Therefore, they will be excluded from any large-scale, open-pit mining project, or exploration and extraction of hydrocarbons.

3.4. Creation of Councils for designing and implementing the program at different levels

Considering the political, economic, social, environmental and cultural nature of this problem, the widest participation of communities directly involved is required. In this sense, participatory Councils of leadership and coordination will be created, as follows:

a) Communitarian Assemblies and Councils of the Program

The basis of the program are the communitarian Assemblies and Councils. The communitarian Assemblies will be formed by members of the peasant communities of producers of coca, poppy and marijuana, as appropriate. Their main function is to define the general guidelines of the Program in their respective jurisdiction. They should appoint the representatives from the Community Board of Action for the Communitarian Council as well.The Communitarian Council, based on the definitions of the Community Assembly, will have the task to define the local Program and the policies, tools and mechanisms for its implementation. It will also monitor its implementation and enforcement. The Communitarian Assemblies and Councils will define the Program, in agreement with the Government in the Local Councils.

The Program's Local Councils

Program Local Councils will be created, with representatives of the Government at municipal level, the FARC-EP and the Communitarian Councils. The Local Councils represent agencies of consultation, design and definition of the Program at local level. They will design the policies, instruments and mechanisms for implementation, and they will monitor their implementation and enforcement.

The Program's Territorial Councils

The Program's Territorial Councils will be created, with representatives of the Government at regional level, delegates of municipal governments,of the FARC-EP, and the Communitarian Councils from their respective territories. Their main functions are in the design of the program at the territorial level, which should be previously agreed on. They will also define policies, instruments and mechanisms for implementation, as well as monitoring their implementation and enforcement, taking the provisions of the Local Programs.

The Program's National Council

The Program's National Council will be created, with representatives of the National Government, delegates from regional governments, the FARC-EP, and organized peasant communities. Its main functions are the design of the National Program, defining the policies, instruments and mechanisms for its implementation. It will also monitor its implementation and enforcement, taking the provisions of the Territorial Programs.

3.5. Demilitarization of the territories and areas covered by the Program

The implementation of the program involves guarantees and security conditions for the peasant population living in the territories and areas covered by the program. Therefore, demilitarization of those territories, and their consequent exclusion as war zones and "Zones for Consolidation Plans" should be started immediately. The territories covered by the Program will be defined as "Territories for the construction of peace with social justice". State presence should focus on the provision of public goods, physical infrastructure, infrastructure for social and environmental recovery. The State should also encourage and support sustainable rural and popular economies.

3.6. Suspension of aerial spraying with chemical agents and of the forced eradication of crops.

The voluntary and participatory nature of the program should build trust in peasant producers. Therefore, as a consideration, the National Government should immediately suspend the aerial spraying with chemicals such as glyphosate on crops of coca, poppy and marijuana in the territories and areas covered by the Program. Similarly, the forced eradication of such crops should be suspended.

3.7. Review of criminal State policies

The Program involves an immediate review of the current criminal State policies, which are focused on persecution, stigmatization and criminalization of peasant producers. In this sense, regulatory designs must be provided, if necessary, in order to ensure an appropriate treatment of the problem of crops, according to its economic, social and cultural nature.

3.8. Extraordinary measures of economic and social nature

Considering that the Program will be implemented gradually, extraordinary economic and social measures should be agreed, aimed at ensuring decent living and working conditions. This should be discussed with the peasant communities and families and in the relevant bodies. To this end, each family will be given a basic monthly income until the economic and social sustainability of the Program's plans and projects is ensured. Basic income will also cover all those who work in crops, collectors and other types of salaried employers in that sector, who are a mobile labor force linked to the production process. Likewise, the peasant families and community will receive a special income for the funding and support of community activities, especially with regard to their organizational and sociocultural aspects.

Basic contents of the Program

The Program should bee based on a basic consideration: The problem that is to be resolved isn't caused by coca, poppy and marijuana crops, but by the illegal uses that are given to them. In that sense, rather than combating the production, we should regulate or replace them, as appropriate. The Program doesn't support prohibitionist or interdiction policies. It rather aims at seeking a solution to the economic and social problems that have led to sectors of the peasantry to become the weakest link in a transnational capitalist enterprise of criminal character. An indisputable foundation for this solution is the voluntary and participatory nature of it and therefore, in the express political will of the rural communities to try alternative paths, in order to create conditions and ensure decent life and working conditions.

Given the above, the Program should consider two aspects:

a) A component of voluntary substitution of the illicit use of coca, poppy and marijuana crops, by promoting alternative development plans, designed in concert with the communities involved, through direct participation.

b) An additional component of voluntary substitution of illicit uses of coca, poppy and marijuana crops, through direct state intervention to regulate the production and the market, considering the food, nutritional, medicinal, therapeutic and cultural qualities, as appropriate, as well as its economic potential.

Therefore, the initial terms of the Program relate, on the one hand, to the definition of territories and areas for voluntary and agreed crop substitution. This will be done through alternative development plans. On the other hand, territories and areas in which a State-regulated production will be kept, because the producers want so. This can be done through lawful artisanal or industrial processing or through a system of State purchases. The production should be oriented to supplying the domestic market or international demand.

In each case, there should be carried out a diagnosis of the respective territory or area, according to technical parameters, in order to establish the political, organizational, social, cultural, environmental situation, as well as the provision of physical, social and institutional infrastructure. The diagnosis is based on the direct and active participation of the communities involved, in cooperation with technicians and experts in various disciplines of social, technical and natural sciences, which will be provided by the Program at the request of the communities. The diagnostic formulation should lead to the identification of the different needs of communities and the necessary infrastructure to help them.

4.1. Substitution of the illicit uses through "alternative development plans"

In the case of the territories and areas where crop substitution is decided, the diagnosis should lead to the formulation of general guidelines for "alternative development plans", their goals, objectives and priorities. The "alternative development plans" will be comprised of specific programs and investment projects developed by the communities themselves, in cooperation with technicians and experts. The programs and projects will be fully quantified to establish the total costs of the Plan and the resources that are needed to carry them out. The "alternative development plans" will have a five-year horizon and will be broken down into multi-year investment budgets, which will allow to keep track of the goals and commitments agreed with the state. In any case, they are based on the principle of gradual substitution of crops, which will be explicitly defined in verifiable annual goals.

The "alternative development plans" should help to ensure the conditions of economic, social and environmental sustainability of the respective territories and areas. Therefore, the definition of productive activities and generation of services that will replace the production of coca, poppy and marijuana are essential. Thus, the plans should promote food production, including artisanal or industrial processing including, as appropriate, to cover -first of all- the communities' demand, but also the domestic market niches, or even to supply the international market, especially from neighboring countries. Similarly, the plans should consider forms of productive linkages, seeking inter-regional networks of people's economies. The State will guarantee price support for surplus produce, regardless of fluctuations in market prices, and will develop a system of state purchases of those surpluses. The Plans will promote economic activities other than agriculture and livestock, such as industrial processing or services, according to the potential of the territories and areas. The different economic activities of the "alternative development plans" should ensure decent work and income for peasant communities and families. While economic sustainability is achieved, there will be a basic income and a communitarian compensation fund.In the case of crop workers, collectors and other types of salaried employment in that sector, a program of access to land ownership, under the terms specified in the partial agreements, should be contemplated.In any case, the "alternative development plans" will not be measured by the parameter of cost-benefit in the capitalist sense, but considering their contribution to address the problems associated with the illicit use of coca, poppy and marijuana crops.

The "alternative development plans" contain programs and projects for the provision of physical infrastructure (especially transport and communication), and social infrastructure (especially housing, health, education, culture and recreation). Similarly, programs and projects to ensure social and environmental sustainability, including the need for the environmental recovery of the territories and areas if necessary.Special attention deserves the protection of common goods such as water, biodiversity and native seeds.

All programs and projects of the "alternative development plans" will be implemented by the communities themselves and will include all necessary technical and technological assistance. In that aspect, they will represent a way of generating employment and income, which includes crop workers, collectors and other salaried employers of the sector.The "alternative development plans" will be financed with resources provided by local funds, on allocations previously agreed. These resources will be managed directly by the communities. The public funds will be managed by associations or organizations of peasant communities.

4.2. Substitution of illicit uses through state regulation of production and market

In the case of territories and areas where the voluntary substitution of the illicit uses of coca, poppy and marijuana crops is decided, through direct state intervention in order to regulate production and market, the economic basis of the "alternative development plans" is the recognition of food, nutritional, medicinal, therapeutic and cultural qualities of these crops. This, in turn, should be based on proven academic and scientific research, and existing experiences in the country and on international level. In this sense, it is about getting the most out of the economic potential of artisanal and industrial processing of these crops. The "alternative development plans" should define precisely the areas of production, which will be regulated directly by the State and communities involved in the Program. Likewise, the artisanal or industrial processing for the domestic market or international markets. In any case, the definition of production quantities will be established based on investigations on potential demand, both in the domestic market and the international market. This involves the creation of a legal market for coca, poppy and marijuana, controlled by the State through a system of price supports and government procurement.

4.3. Special Considerations on National Parks

Considering the strategic importance of the National Natural Parks System, of the environmental and ecological heritage of the Nation, and its status as common property of the Colombian people, the program will consider special conditions designed to ensure their protection and conservation. This implies the express prohibition of exploration and extraction of mining and energy sources, undertaking socio-environmental recovery or restoration of affected areas. Abstraction processes, during which irreversible changes in land use are demonstrated, as a result of productive peasant activities, including coca, poppy and marijuana crops, should be reviewed.The protection and conservation of Natural Parks don't involve relocation of peasant communities and families, but designs that make their habitat, with decent living conditions, compatible with the purposes of protection and conservation. To do this, additional complementary resources should be provided. Only exceptionally and after consultation and agreement with the communities, relocation may be considered, under conditions that should be negotiated with them, taking into consideration the principle of favorability.

The Program's financing mechanisms and instruments

Funding for the program runs entirely by the State. For this purpose, a National Fund will be created. The sources of financing of the Fund will be:

a) Allocations set out in the Investment Plan of the National Development Plan

b) Specific allocations of the general budget of the Nation

c) Resources from the General System of Royalties.

d) Resources from reduced spending on security and defense, in equal proportion to the tax savings generated by the demilitarization of territories and areas covered by the program.

e) Resources from the immediate suspension of aerial spraying programs with chemical agents, especially glyphosate, and forced eradication.

f) Contributions from the international community, especially from the consumer countries of central capitalism and its States, and also from transnational corporations and nongovernmental organizations.

g) Resources from seizures made ??to drug traffickers in Colombia and abroad.The seized property in hands of the National Narcotics Department will be part of the Fund.

h) Notwithstanding the contributions by the general budget of the Nation, on territorial and local level, the Program will have funds from regional and municipal budgets, from regions and municipalities that are committed to its implementation.The contributions of peasant communities and families will consist of work, to be paid by the State.

The resources of the National Fund shall be administered and distributed by the National Program Council, serving the purposes and objectives of the Program and the requirements of the Territorial Councils.

Territorial Funds, comprised of specific allocations from the National Fund, administered by the respective Territorial Council, and by the corresponding contributions of regional budgets will be established. The resources of the Fund will be distributed attending the requirements of the Local Councils.

Local Funds will be established, comprised of specific assignments by the Territorial Fund, administered by the respective Local Council, and by the corresponding contributions of municipal budgets. Local Fund resources will be distributed, meeting the requirements of the Communityarian Councils and Assemblies. They are in charge of the direct and autonomous management of resources, according to plans and projects identified by the communities themselves. For legal purposes, the contractual relationship that might arise will be made ??with peasant associations that represent the communities and families.

Monitoring and control

Without prejudice to the functions of monitoring and control of the Program, which will correspond to the communitarian Assemblies and Councils, Local Councils, Territorial Councils and the Program's National Council, an "international monitoring and Oversight control of the Program" will be agreed at all levels. The international control will consist of representatives of the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC), UNASUR, and the academic community. It will submit a semiannual report on compliance of the Program's goals and commitments and may make recommendations for improved compliance.

Peace Delegation of the FARC-EP

Published in FARC-EP
Friday, 03 January 2014 00:00

The Washington Post Misleads on Colombia

The Washington Post Misleads on Colombia

Taken from: http://colombiasupport.net
On December 21, 2013 the Washington Post published an article titled ?Covert action in Colombia? by reporter Dana Priest (http://www.washingtonpost.com/sf/investigative/2013/12/21/covert-action-in-colombia/?hpid=z1).

Published in Background

1. What do the FARC think about the vision of the government that after a peace deal the FARC could work as coca eradicators or work on other activities to reduce coca cultivation in Colombia?

The first thing I should point out is that the FARC is a political and military organization whose primary purpose is the establishment of true democracy, peace with social justice and sovereignty.

Published in Peace Delegation

Havana, Cuba, site of the peace talks, November 29, 2013

Vision on a solution to the problem of illicit drugs:
Outlines of a discussion

Published in FARC-EP
Page 3 of 4